© 2017 kleinewelt architekten
Year: 2016
area: 22 Hа
Petrovski Park
Moscow, Leningradskiy pr-t, 40
Petrovski Park adjoining the Petroff Palace became a Moscow entertainment spot when they started to sell the land around the palace for summer cottages. The park itself was a place for walks and tea-parties. Quite a number of country restaurants could be seen around it since the middle of XIX century. Pleasure-seekers revealed here wandering from one restaurant to another, which was called "attending all churches". Officially, there were 129 public houses in the park, but nobody knew their true number. In winter, when it got dark early, street lights were bright all the way from Tverskaia Zastava, and driving with a speeder was a great impression. People dissipated their fortunes here. Wines were flowing like water, people confessed their love, dueled, composed poems. You could make a secret appointment here.
Today the building area around the park needs some modern greenery. This is true both for offices and the radio station famous with its public events. The project is designed to resurrect the festive atmosphere in the park. Open spaces – meadows – will be preserved and filled with cultural activities, such as summer theater, café and child center. Landscaping works are to bring back to life the historical regular planning of the park. Also, it is designed to adapt the historical structure to the modern needs of the city, which sometimes are controversial. A new alley structure allows to create quiet playgrounds near the residential area, as well as to provide a transit from a hub to main infrastructures. The facilities in the park will be interesting both for the residents and those coming here on purpose.
Historical Background
1838
1852
1903
In 1774, after folk festivals on Khodynka Field celebrating the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Catherine the Great, satisfied with the celebrations, ordered M. Kazakov to construct a stone palace by the Petrovskoye-Zykovo village located on the Peterburgskiy tract. The Petroff Palace was designed by Kazakov in "Turkish style", like follies for celebrations on the Khodynka Field. It was constructed from 1775 till 1782. The Petroff Palace was the last stop of the tsar's train before it entered Moscow. In 1812 Napoleon's general headquarters were located in the palace.

In 1827, during the reconstruction of Moscow after the Patriotic War, they decided to turn the area by the Petroff Palace into a landscape park. They bought out summer cottages around the palace and the adjoining Maslova wasteland. Now there appeared a pond, a road, dams, three alleys spraying from the palace like rays, the central path was widened and improved, now it was the Palace alley. Special gothic pavilions were constructed for veterans of the Patriotic War. Originally, the park territory amounted to 65 ha.

Petrovski Park became a popular walking spot. At that time it was prohibited to hold taverns and inns in the Petrovski park. In 1835 a wooden summer theater was built along the Palace alley, and in 1836-1837 – the station building. In the first half of XIX century the park was also a prestigious aristocratic country place. According to the order of Nicholas I, the territories from Tverskaia Zastava to the Petrovski park were used for new summer cottages; the owners were given a 5 thousand rubles' credit for 10 years, under the condition that a good two-storey house with a mezzanine, attics and an iron roof would be built.
1920
1939
Our days
The summer cottages were designed in different styles. In the middle of XIX century the country area extended to the east and surrounded the park in the north, in the second half of the XIX century summer cottages were built towards Vsekhvyatskoye village.

Wagonettes circulated regularly from Ilyinskie vorota to the Petrovski park. In 1899 the first tramline was opened from Strastnoy Boulevard to the park.

At the at the end of the XIX and beginning of the XX centuries a famous restaurant "Yar" was built in the park. It was full of visitors all the year round.

In the second half of the XIX - beginning of the XX century in the park there were built famous restaurants "Yar" (in 1836 Bashilov rented his house to the French restaurateur Tranquil Yar) and "Strelna" with the summer office "Mauritania" (appeared later), as well as the restaurant " Eldorado ", which belonged to the merchant Ilya Aref'evich Skalkin.

At the end of XIX century the amount of greeneries reduced dramatically due to the active construction of summer cottages. Only in 1907 Nicholas II prohibited to sell the lands in the Petroff park for cottages.

On September 5, 1918, right after Bolsheviks declared Red Terror, Moscow Cheka publicly executed by a firing squad the hostages who represented officials of the former Russian Empire. Up to 80 people were put to death. Among them were the Home Secretary, the former minister of justice, an archpriest an others.

September 5, 1918, immediately after the announcement by the Bolshevik authorities of the Red Terror, in the Petrovsky Park, the Moscow Cheka conducted a public execution of representatives of the highest officials of the former Russian Empire. In total, up to 80 people were executed. Among others, Interior Minister Maklakov N.A., Khvostov A.N., former Minister of Justice Shcheglovitov I.G., the last chairman of the State Council, Archpriest Ivan Vostorgov, etc. were shot. As an eyewitness of the execution Sergei Kobyakov recalled: They shot everyone in Petrovsky park. The execution was committed in public. The chekists shouted out the names of those who were executed. Pointing at Shcheglovitov, they shouted: "Here is the former tsarist minister who shed blood of workers and peasants all his life ..." ... After the execution all the executed were robbed.

After that the ponds were dried up. A large area was given for the construction of Dynamo Stadium that was built here in 1928.
Area Development Scheme
Existing Situation
Influx of Visitors
The features of the area
Advantages:
1. Historical value
2. Popularity among local residents
3. High planting level
4. Proximity to metro stations and public transport stops

Disadvantages:
1.Interference of the current transport situation into the historical planning of the park
2. Disrupted territory
3. Complicated footpath system
4. Absence of a clear pedestrian transit
5. Absence of connections between separate parts of the park
6. Low landscaping level
7. Noise from neighboring roads
8. Low light intensity
Petrovski Park — restaurants life
Despite the location between the center and the prestigious summer residence of the Petrovsky Park, carriages rushed "to Yar" all year round. In winter, when it was getting dark early, all the lights from the Tverskaya outpost shone brightly, and the trip "with a roadhog" was memorable. Entire fortunes were wiped out here. Wine and champagne poured down the river, people confessed their love, shot, wrote poems. Assigned secret visits. Bryusov, Chekhov, Kuprin, Shalyapin, Stanislavsky, Gilyarovsky, Grigory Rasputin and Felix Yusupov, Gorky and Leonid Andreev, Balmont, the artists Vasnetsov brothers, Levitan, Repin, Vrubel, Serov ... often visited the "Yar".

The "Yar" Restaurant became famous all over Russia thanks to the best gypsy choir Sokolov, who performed here.Another famous restaurant of this park, constantly competing with "Yar" — "Strelna" — had a hall with a stage and a luxurious winter garden, its owner gathered exotic plants from around the world, and the garden pools were full of various fish.

Lovers of entertainment were boozing, roaming from one restaurant to another, which was called "walking in all the churches." There were plenty of locations in the park. Only according to official figures there were 129, but no one knew how many in fact.Open solar space in front of the "Mauritania" restaurant was sown with an unprecedented lawn. The lawn looked like a richly colored carpet and throughout the summer magically changed the "patterns", pleasing the eye until late autumn.

The selected seed mixture proved to be so successful that the company "Immer and Son", which was selling seeds, in turn, bought the right from the merchant and began to sell it smartly under the name "Mauritanian lawn".
Functional Zoning
Route Plan
General Plan Scheme
Objects under Protection
Route Plan
Object placement scheme
Network connections scheme
Axonometry
Children
Children area
Events
«Wooden theatre» + cafe
Wooden theatre transformation
Cafe — wooden theatre
Lime Alley — fairs, festivals
Palace view \ Lime Alley
Through the park to subway
Integration of MAFs system and exhibition elements into the modular stone side on the transit way
Cafes
Cafe-greenhouse
Rest area / cafe
Cafe-greenhouse
Cafe
Area S = 150 м2
Estimated number of visitors — 50 people

Sport activities
Sport activity area
Workout area
Lighting scheme
Pedestrian track cover materials
Landscaping
Greenery reconstruction program
1. Elimination of withered, weak, broken, hazardously disposed, fractured and wilting branches and branch woods.
2. Removal of root underwood from trees and weeds
3. Lifting of crown to 4 m height (cutting of lower branches, if necessary)
4. Reconstruction of hedges
5. Elimination or crown reduction pruning of volunteer woody species interfering with planned alley plantings and other ones
6. Remedial measures (upon the results of a dendrologist examination)
Hedges
Midland hawthorn Crataegus oxyacanthaTrees and bushes
• English field maple Acer campestre
• European beech Fagus sylvatica
• Golden currant Ribes aureum
• White cedar Thuja occidentalis
• Japanese yew Taxus cuspidata
• Midland hawthorn Crataegus oxyacantha
• Dwarf ninebark Physocarpus opulifolium
Flower beds
Flowering perennials
• Purple sage Salvia nemorosa
• Bugle Ajuga reptans 'Purpurea'
• Catmint Nepeta faassenii
• Giant catmint Nepeta grandiflora — Great masterwort Astrantia major
• Onion Allium karataviense
• Round onion Allium rotundum
Decorative grasses
• Bottlebrush grass Hystrix patula
• Woodreed Calamagrostis acutiflora 'Karl Foerster'
• Turfy hair grass Deschampsia caespitosa
• Wild false grass Panicum virgatum
• Fescue Festuca glauca
• Moor grass Sesleria autumnalis