© 2017 kleinewelt architekten
YEAR: 2014
Apartment Complex in Olsufievskiy Lane
Moscow, Olsufievskiy lane
Initially, the Khamovniki district consisted of six settlements: Novodevichya, Streletskaya, Novokonyushennaya, Rostovskaya, Savvinskaya, Slobodka Chudova Monastirya. The emergence of Khamovnaya Sloboda refers to the end of the 16th century, when weavers from the village Konstantinovka near Tver were moved here, to the bend of the Moscow River, and so at first their settlement was named Tverskaya Konstantinovskaya Sloboda, and from the 17th century – Khamovnaya Sloboda.

This place is the geometric center of Khamovniki, which gives grounds to perceive it as the epicenter and quintessence of this region and all the information about its past and present.

The structure of the project is the intersection of two types of layers existing in this place - temporal (centuries) and semantic (quarters).

The complex is made of a structure of six future buildings that stand for six formerly located quarters (sloboda), and also with a vertical structuring by centuries (floors) - from the XVI to XXI (six floors).

The center of Khamovniki

Place. Situational location of the future complex is located in the geometric center of the historical district of Khamovniki.

History. Initially, the Khamovniki district consisted of six settlements: Novodevichya, Streletskaya, Novokonyushennaya, Rostovskaya, Savvinskaya, Slobodka Chudova Monastirya. The emergence of Khamovnaya Sloboda refers to the end of the 16th century, when weavers from the village Konstantinovka near Tver were moved here, to the bend of the Moscow River, and so at first their settlement was named Tverskaya Konstantinovskaya Sloboda, and from the 17th century – Khamovnaya Sloboda.

Surroundings and current situation.
Social environment and the infrastructures of this district are quite attractive: historical place almost in the very center of Moscow, good ecology, perfect transport accessibility, great amount of green recreational areas and cultural facilities. Many famous people lived here, for instance, Vernadsky, Tolstoy, and Dal. The area is surrounded by parks and squares: 4 minutes by foot to Devichiye pole square, 6 minutes to the Trubetsky Manor park. The flaw of the location today is absence of public eating places, consumer services, and shops. For instance, the nearest supermarket ("Azbuka Vkusa") is located on Komsomolskiy prospect (25 minutes by foot).

Concept. This place is the geometric center of Khamovniki, which makes it the heart of the district and the essence of its past and present. In this respect, we treat this project as the symbol and center of Khamovniki district. That is why the project structure is based on interconnection of time (centuries) and historical meaning (slobodas). Sloboda was a kind of settlement in the history of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. The name is derived from the early Slavic word for "freedom" and may be loosely translated as "free settlement". The buildings of the complex are structured like the former slobodas, and the floors – like centuries, from XVI to XXI (six floors).

Self-presentation and mission. Comfortable life in this part of Moscow is not possible without a publicly attractive space that could serve as a conceptual, symbolic and cultural center of the district. There is no such center in Khamovniki yet, and this project aims at its creation.
The scheme of the modern borders of the Khamovniki district.
Overlay on the plan of 1819
Khamovnaya sloboda. The name of this Moscow district originates from the palace sloboda – weavers, or khamovniks, lived here. In XVII century weaving was developed actively in Moscow: woven fabrics were used for manufacturing clothes, as well as interior features (table cloths, towels, etc.).

Woven products were needed for the court, they also were sold on markets. Kadashevskaya and Khamovnaya slobodas were the main suppliers of woven production in Moscow. Kadashes manufactured cloth used for production of the Tsar family's linen, and khamovniks manufactured table linen for the court. The name of this profession originated from an old word "khamian" that meant cheap silk material.
Historical development of Khamovniki district
Location of the quarter
Savvinskaya Sloboda. Next to Khamovniki there was Savvinskaya Sloboda, the memory of which was preserved in the names of the Bolshoy and Maly Savvinsky lanes. Sloboda was associated with the history of a small Savvinsky monastery - the patrimonial pilgrimage place of Dobrynskys, the Moscow boyars of the 15th century. To serve the needs of the patriarchal property near the monastery there appears a small settlement, the first mention of which dates back to 1565.

Rostovskaya Sloboda. In the XIV century, the land next to it, in the area of the modern Borodino bridge, came to be owned by the Rostov rulers (later metropolitans), and here is where the Rostovskaya Sloboda appears. In 1412, the Rostov bishop Grigoriy built the stone church of the Annunciation of the Theotokos here.

Slobodka Chudova Monastirya. But these quarters did not limit the monastic possessions in this area. Not far from the Krymsky ford in the XVII century there existed Slobodka Chudova Monastirya. It was very small in size: in 1638 there were only 8 households in it.

Semchinskoye. One of the oldest Moscow villages, located on the territory of the modern district, was the village of Semchinskoye, located between the current Ostozhenka and Prechistenka streets. For the first time it is mentioned in the first draft of last will of Ivan Kalita, compiled in 1331. For two centuries it was mentioned in all the wills of the Moscow princes.

Konyushennaya Sloboda. However, the main here was Konyushennaya Sloboda for the horsemen that served for the palace, which occupied a vast territory on the site of the present Gagarinsky and Starokonyushenny lanes. Sloboda for the palace grooms was formed near Sivtsev Vrazhek at the beginning of the reign of Ivan IV, when the Tsar's stables were transferred from Kulishki to Chertolye. That sloboda was one of the largest in Moscow (in 1632 it listed 199 households, and in 1653 - 190 households).

Novaya Konyushennaya Sloboda. The moving of Konyushennaya Sloboda was largely explained by the fact that by the middle of the 17th century the stables department had reached enormous proportions. The stable regiment was serviced by 424 people, among whom we can see groomsmen, whose duty was "always being with the sovereign" ("at the stirrup") in the marches, stable grooms, horseshoers, masters of saddle, etc.

Novodevichiya sloboda. The most famous was the history of Novodevichya Sloboda, located in the neighborhood of Savvinskaya Sloboda, which closely intertwined with the history of the Novodevichy Convent, founded in 1524. Unlike "vestal (starodevichy)" Zachatievsky monastery on Ostozhenka, it began to be called Novodevichy. From the very beginning, this monastery served as an important point in the defense of Moscow, defending the approaches to the capital from the west. The monasteric walls are a complex fortification.
Historical development of the territory
On the territory of modern Olsufyevsky and Bozheninovsky lanes at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries there were suburban noblemen's estates with all the regular traits belonging to suburban houses, including those typical for Russian barins estates: the main manor house, a farmyard, a garden or a park, where fruit and flower greenhouses were located. Actually, Olsufievsky lane, which arose only at the end of the XIX century, was located on the territory of an extensive nobleman's estate owned by the Russian nobility (the princes Golitsyn and later Dolgorukov).

On the territory of the building No.10 there is an interesting complex of factory buildings, which belonged to the Trade House of V.V. Shuleikina and A.A. Beze even back in 1917.

It was acquired in 1883, together with the sites No.313/311 of Mary Ugryumova, by Moscow merchant Vasily Vasilyevich Shuleikin for organizing a factory production. The total amount of land in the new home ownership was 928 sq. sazhen (1950 m2). In the same year, V.V. Shuleikin asked the permission of the Construction Department of the Region to build a stone two-story factory building with annexes for stairs, as well as two wooden one-story buildings, one of which was a lodge. The design drawings of a stone two-story factory building were made by the Moscow architect Nikolai Ilyich Gushchin (1848-1904). He also built on the territory of the site in 1884 a stone one-story barn. In 1888, V.V. Shuleikin asked permission to build on the site a one-story non-residential stone building with a place for a pipe and a two-story building for barracks workers. These works were designed by the Moscow architect Konstantin V. Tersky (1851-1905). In 1892, a fire broke out in the main factory building, and a three-story building (a stone two-story building with a basement) was renewed according to the design drawings of the Moscow architect Yakov Ivanovich Antonov. In 1894-1895, at the factory site, construction work (a single-story stone building and an extension to the main factory building) were carried out according to the designs of architect Vladislav Aleksandrovich Shimanovsky (1857-1899). In 1895, under the supervision of the architect Lev Ksaverievich Koromaldi, who worked at a neighboring site on construction works in the clinic complex, a wooden one-storey house was renovated, built in 1879 and preserved in the factory building as an owner's house on Bozheninovsky Lane. In 1906, the Moscow architect Mikhail Yakovlevich Kaverinsky (1878-1936) executed the project of a canopy for factory needs in the possession of the Moscow merchant Vasily Vasilyevich Shuleikin of the Khamovniki part 1 of the site No. 927 / 311.

According to archival documents, the territory of the household was occupied by the wallpaper factory of VV Shileikin since 1889. Later, it was owned by the Trade House of V.V. Shuleikin and I.S. Egorov, then the Trade House of V.V. Shuleikin and A.A. Beze.

The scheme of the Khamovniki disctrict quarters (slobodas)
Plan of the district's infrastructure
Plan of distribution of functional balance around the adjacent territory
Residential and public buildings
The structure of the house
Connection of the old facades
Configuration of the building
Facade solution